Photons, Gravitons & Weak Bosons | Standard Model Of Particle Physics ... The Standard Model of Particle Physics (Chapter 6): Photons, Gravitons & Weak Bosons.

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1) First Second Of The Universe:
2) Force And Matter:
3) Quarks:
4) Gluons:
5) Electrons, Protons And Neutrons:
6) Photons, Gravitons & Weak Bosons:
7) Neutrinos:
8) The Higgs Boson / The Higgs Mechanism:

The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory of three of the four known fundamental interactions and the elementary particles that take part in these interactions. These particles make up all visible matter in the universe.

Every high energy physics experiment carried out since the mid-20th century has eventually yielded findings consistent with the Standard Model.

Still, the Standard Model falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental interactions because it does not include gravitation, dark matter, or dark energy. It is not quite a complete description of leptons either, because it does not describe nonzero neutrino masses, although simple natural extensions do.




Photons are the gauge bosons the force carriers for Electromagnetism. Whenever charged particles interact, photons are exchanged.

They have no mass, no electric charge, no weak charge, and no color charge the epitome of almost nothing at all. And yet here is where its at!

Since they are responsible for all electron and proton interaction, everything we do in our everyday life from moving a mouse to running in the park relies on the exchange of photons.

They are energy, contained in shifting and changing Electric and Magnetic Fields Like all particles with no rest mass, photons travel at the speed of light. They cannot come to rest.

Photons in the range of visible light carry just enough energy to excite a single molecule in a photoreceptor cell of your eye.


Gravitons are the as-yet undiscovered force carriers for Gravity. Because of the great success of the Standard model in describing the other three forces with exchange bosons, it is assumed that gravity has a gauge boson as well. Its properties have been extrapolated. It is a massless, stable, spin = 2 particle that travels at the speed of light. Gravitons may not be constrained to the dimensions of space and time that we experience


Weak bosons, also called Intermediate Vector Bosons, are the exchange particles for the Weak Nuclear Force.

There are three of them called W+, W-, and Z0. They are very massive, each being 80-90 times as heavy as a proton.

Because they are so heavy, the uncertainty principle allows them only an extremely short range when they act as force carriers. So the Weak Nuclear Force has a range only about 1/100 the diameter of a proton. The W bosons cause quarks to change flavor while the Z has an effect in an esoteric type of interaction called neutral currents.


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